In and around the Yamato area, archaeologists have found large manufacturing sites for the production of stone beads, salt and pottery. The Yamato area was also the center for producing and distributing bronze mirrors, prestige goods for local leaders.
Formation of clan groups:beanduji
From the earlier rice-farming communities, groups of clans emerged who were charged with specialized tasks (e.g. building and maintaining dikes and canals) and specific areas of control emerged. The head of these clan groups performed the rites that honored and placated the community’skami(local deity) … an important job forkofunpeople.
Clans of the 5th century located in and around the Nara plain formed groups, thought to have been calledujiby a Yamato king, and theseujigroups became hereditary and the roles of theujiclans were passed down through families from generation to generation.Ujilikely evolved from the earlierbeoccupational groups.Occupational groups (be) attached to court and the supporting clans helped to generate much of Yamato’s economic and military might.Bewas a word of Paekche (Korean) origin.
Bothbeandujiare considered by some historians to be units for the control of the Yamato society.
The highestkabanetitles were awarded to men who headed powerful and strategic clans who were bound to one Yamato king after another by family ties. The most prestigiouskabanewere bestowed as a hereditary right on clan leaders at the court with the lowest going to clan leaders in local areas. The highest twoomiandmurajiwere granted only to the heads of powerful clans who served the Yamato kings directly and who resided in the neighborhood of the capital. Greatomior greatmurajiwas bestowed only on the head of the strongest clan.
Inscriptions on a bronze mirror from the Suda Hachiman Shrine in Wakayama Prefecture, bearing the date AD 443, has Chinese characters on it including of a clan “Kawachi” and “Atai” thekabanetitle bestowed by a Yamato king. Another inscription on a 5th century Inariyama sword also included the name of a clan and titlekabane. The inscription revealed that the sword’s ownerOwake no Omihad served King Yuryaku and his predecessors generation after generation.Owakewas the name of the clan andOmiwas thekabanetitle bestowed.
A web of court and clan relations
Although the accuracy of the Nihon Shoki chronicles had been doubted earlier by historians, experts have come recently come to regard the reports after the year 400 as surprisingly accurate accounts of dates and events, as well as of the relationships between the Yamato king’s court and the clans.
Title appointments changed often along with new lines of Yamato kings. Historians study these appointments carefully – when the appointments of greatomichanged (locally or regionally), they sometimes suggested a shift or break in the Yamato king’s line of descent.
King Yuryaku in the 5th century expanded the use ofkabaneappointments as a way to strengthen his court’s control of the country.Kabanetitles were given out to clan leaders in outlying regions to obtain the chieftains’ allegiance to the Yamato court and to incorporate clan groups from beyond the Nara plain into the Yamato state system.
The Yamato leaders jealously guarded the right and responsibility for organizing the trade of goods, for the Yamato court especially during the late Kofun period. Struggles and conflicts often took place over those rights between the clan groups.